IVF - İnvitro Fertilizasyon
What is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) (Assisted Reproductive Technology ART)?
IVF is the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus.
Why is IVF used?
IVF can be used to treat infertility in the following patients:
- Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes
- Male factor infertility including decreased sperm count or sperm motility
- Women with ovulation disorders, premature ovarian failure, uterine fibroids
- Women who have had their fallopian tubes removed
- Individuals with a genetic disorder
- Unexplained infertility
How is In Vitro Fertilization Done?
There are five basic steps in the IVF and embryo transfer process:
Step 1: Contact us through our website or email. Get a free video call with Dr. Nezih Durmazlar who will discuss with you all the available options, success rates, preliminary treatment plans, and full pricing. The conversation will last according to the patient's history and needs, which may last at least one hour. According to the couples, past history, relevant blood tests, and diagnostic procedures will be requested and discussed with Dr. Nezih Durmazlar. Get the necessary documentation and a detailed schedule of the follow-up and treatment. Fertility medications are prescribed to stimulate egg production. Multiple eggs are desired because some eggs will not develop or fertilize after retrieval. A transvaginal ultrasound is used to examine the ovaries, and blood test samples are taken to check hormone levels.
Step 2: Eggs are retrieved through a minor surgical procedure under sedation that uses ultrasound imaging to guide a hollow needle through the pelvic cavity to remove the eggs. Medication is provided to reduce and remove potential discomfort.
Step 3: The male is asked to produce a sample of sperm, which is prepared for combining with the eggs.
Step 4: In a process called insemination, the sperm and eggs are mixed together and stored in a laboratory dish to encourage fertilization. In some cases where there is a lower probability of fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be used. Through this procedure, a single sperm is injected directly into the egg in an attempt to achieve fertilization. The eggs are monitored to confirm that fertilization and cell division are taking place. Once this occurs, the fertilized eggs are considered embryos.
Step 5: The embryos are usually transferred into the woman’s uterus three to five days following egg retrieval and fertilization. A catheter or small tube is inserted into the uterus to transfer the embryos. This procedure is painless for most women, although some may experience mild cramping. If the procedure is successful, implantation typically occurs around six to ten days following egg retrieval.
How Successful is IVF?
The success rate depends on a number of factors including reproductive history, maternal age, the cause of infertility, and lifestyle factors. It is also important to understand that pregnancy rates are not the same as live birth rates. The live birth rate for each IVF cycle started is approximate:
- 41-43% for women under age 35
- 33-36% for women ages 35 to 37
- 23-27% for women ages 38 to 40
- 13-18% for women ages over 40
Are There Any Side Effects?
Although you may need to take it easy after the procedure, most women can resume normal activities the following day.
Some side effects after IVF may include:
- Passing a small amount of fluid (may be clear or blood-tinged) after the procedure
- Mild cramping
- Mild bloating
- Breast tenderness
If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
- Heavy vaginal bleeding
- Pelvic pain
- Blood in the urine
- A fever over 38 °C
Some side effects of fertility medications may include:
- Mood swings
- Abdominal pain
- Hot flashes
- Abdominal bloating
- RARE: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)
Are There Any Risks?
As with most medical procedures, there are potential risks. More severe symptoms, typically from OHSS, include the following:
- Nausea or vomiting
- Decreased urinary frequency
- Shortness of breath
- Severe stomach pains and bloating
- Ten-pound weight gain within three to five days
If you experience any of these symptoms above, contact us right away. Additional risks of IVF include the following:
- Egg retrieval carries risks of bleeding, infection, and damage to the bowel or bladder.
- The chance of a multiples pregnancy is increased with the use of fertility treatment. There are additional risks and concerns related to multiples during pregnancy including the increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight.
- Though the rates of miscarriage are similar to unassisted conception, the risk does increase with maternal age.
- The risk of ectopic pregnancy with IVF is 2-5%. An ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilized egg implants anywhere outside the uterus and is not viable.
How many embryos should be created or transferred?
The number of embryos transferred typically depends on the number of eggs collected and maternal age. As the rate of implantation decreases as women age, more eggs may be implanted depending on age to increase the likelihood of implantation. However, a greater number of eggs transferred increases the chances of having a multiples pregnancy.